An extremely important aspect is the limitation of the effectiveness of collective agreements in relation to the individual employment contract. Under Article 14, paragraph 1, employment contracts can always improve the terms set by the agreements, which means that they can never be considered absolutely binding standards for individual contracts. Individual autonomy can always improve the system of collective autonomy in favour of the worker. In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  Question: Do companies have a responsibility to promote or respect collective bargaining with respect to the principle of “promoting collective bargaining”? To what extent should a company be proactive in promoting the principle? Is it sufficient to negotiate collective agreements when workers demand it? or should a company also encourage collective bargaining between its employees and in its supply chain? Collective bargaining is a process of bargaining between employers and a group of workers who aim to regulate wages, working conditions, benefits and other aspects of workers` compensation and workers` rights.
The interests of workers are generally represented by representatives of a union to which the workers belong. Collective agreements concluded in these negotiations generally define the size of wages, working time, training, health and safety, overtime, claim mechanisms and rights to participate in professional or professional affairs.  The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 and provided unprecedented bargaining power to a large number of workers.  The Railway Labor Act (1926) required employers to bargain collectively with unions. Unlike such restrictions, the law also provides for certain binding elements that a collective agreement must contain (Article 23, paragraph 1): the identity of the signatory parties, the extent and scope of their application, and the day they are signed. In addition, explicit pay levels for all occupations and categories need to be included in the pay scales (Article 23, paragraph 2). Within twenty-four hours, the university will not require that a staff member`s scheduled duties include a period of more than nine (9) hours (including a meal break) without their consent. The obligations that the staff member may plan for after his election are not considered to be duties under this clause.